Diffusion Through A Liquid Escience Lab Answers
Diffusion is where the solutes move from an area of high concentration to a low concentration. The jet fuel initial oxidation is consistent with anticipated chemical kinetic behavior, based on thermal decomposition of. A concentration gradient affects the direction that solutes diffuse. Chromatography Lab Answers Purpose The purpose of the experiment is to determine the specific types of pigments found in a beet leaf and in a spinach leaf by using paper chromatography and two solvents: water soluble solvent and lipid soluble solvent. Define the following terms in complete sentences: Semipermeable membrane; Passive transport. Hypothesis: If diffusion and osmosis across a selectively permeable membrane are related to the substance the membrane is submersed in, then an egg submersed in corn syrup will make it lighter as a result of the diffusion. Diffusion allows an earthworm to get the oxygen it needs to survive. Larger molecules will diffuse at a slower rate than lower molecular weight compounds. To observe diffusion of a solid, fill a 250 mL beaker with distilled water and add several crystals of potassium permanganate. To answer these question you need reliable data. 815-NovWater (with dye. If you want to entertaining books, lots of novels, tale, jokes,. On this page you can read or download nys lab diffusion through a membrane packet answer key in PDF format. Experiment 1: Diffusion through. The opposing force down is given by the force of gravity on the water that is pulled above the reservoir level. (For example: jones_lab6. Analyte molecules cannot flow along a straight path through the column. He then explains the concepts behind the osmosis lab and how potatoes are affected by increasing sucrose molarity. Several visual experiments can show you how liquids diffuse through other liquids and how liquids diffuse through membranes. The particle model of matter will be a strong theme throughout the rest of the Physical Sciences curriculum, especially if learners continue through to Gr. Lift the oil container, turn it upside-down, and line it up directly over the water-filled container. Hypertonic- 6. Diffusion is, quite simply, the movement of molecules. The module looks at historical developments in our understanding of diffusion, from observations of “dancing” particles in the first century BCE to the discovery. READ everything before you do anything 4. Specialists in the diffusion of atoms through materials call it “Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion. Lift the oil container, turn it upside-down, and line it up directly over the water-filled container. Osmosis & Diffusion in an Egg Objective: In this investigation, you will use a fresh hen’s egg to determine what happens during osmosis & diffusion across membranes. “Okay class. We cannot see water vapor. Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Substances in the. The [solute] and therefore osmotic pressure in the thistle funnel was higher than in the beaker which had pure water. Physics A liquid (density = 1. Lab 2 Answers Escience Labs Lab 2 Answers Escience Labs If you ally need such a referred Lab 2 Answers Escience Labs book that will come up with the money for you worth, get the definitely best seller from us currently from several preferred authors. This lab, title Diffusion and Osmosis, was centered around the diffusion across a cellular membrane and how exactly materials move and diffuse in concentrations. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. From a physiological perspective, this knowledge helps us better understand how long it takes molecules and ions to travel physiologically relevant. The rate of diffusion of the antimicrobial through the agar is dependent on the diffusion and solubility properties of the drug in MH agar (2) and the molecular weight of the antimicrobial compound. Question: Experiment 1: Diffusion Through A Liquid Table 1: Rate Of Diffusion In Corn Syrup (5 Points) Time (sec) Blue Dye Time (sec) Red Dye 10 1. Each of the model cells originally weighed 10 grams. The student will observe the movement of water through cell membranes during the process of osmosis. Osmosis and Diffusion Scenarios. It may occur between gas and gas, liquid and liquid, or solid and liquid. When diffusion occurs, molecules move from a _____ concentration of water towards a _____ concentration of water. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Osmosis: a) is a special kind of diffusion. The hole through a frit is large enough to permit sufficient electrical conductivity to equalize the electrical potential across it, but it is small enough to hamper significant diffusion of. Liquid water is without question the most destructive force acting on light frame structures. Diffusion through a Membrane LE State Lab Part 1B This video describes the results for part 1 of the Diffusion through a Membrane state mandated Living Environment lab. Here at the DKL, we focus on heat/mass transfer, soft materials, and interfacial phenomena to develop groundbreaking technologies for energy and environmental applications. If you want to entertaining books, lots of novels, tale, jokes,. Tech 2 nd semester students. Lab 6 Diffusion Name: As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. Lab 7 - Determination of the Molar Mass of an Unknown Solid by Freezing Point Depression Goal and Overview In the first part of the lab, a series of solutions will be made in order to determine the freezing point depression constant, K f, for cyclohexane. Osmosis is the movement of a solvent (the liquid that the material is in) into an area with a high solute concentration (the material being dissolved). Objective The aim of this experiment is to find how different solvents with different molar mass affect the time taken for a substance to diffuse with the solvents. Escience Lab 6 Diffusion Marshall S. Remember that thicker liquids have a higher viscosity. Since most solvents contain water, osmosis is the movement of solvent across the membrane. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. The lighter the particles in the solvent are, the faster it is to diffuse. Mark Guzdial Georgia Institute of Technology. When too much water accumulates in the cell, the excess is enclosed in a structure called a contractile vacuole and squirted back out through the cell membrane. Please enter a valid US zip code. Each of the model cells originally weighed 10 grams. The particles suspended in liquids and gases, for instance, struck each other resulting in their random constant motion. A concentration gradient affects the direction that solutes diffuse. cannot pass through these openings. Download Answer Key Lab Diffusion and osmosis. In the case … Continue reading "Egg Osmosis Sample 2 lab". Homogenous Mixture 8. Day 1: Diffusion/Osmosis Lab. The hole through a frit is large enough to permit sufficient electrical conductivity to equalize the electrical potential across it, but it is small enough to hamper significant diffusion of. As the students work on the experiment, I circulate through the room answering student questions and asking the students more probing questions about the experiments they are conducting. Your goal is to separate the substances and determine the percent of each in the original mixture. Diffusion and osmosis are the two types of passive transport process through which matter transports from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. This made the egg increase in its weight from 53. It keeps enzymes, DNA, and metabolic pathways in one bundle while at the same time, discharges waste products and allows essential materials such as water to enter through it. Diffusion is a concept that takes into account the movement of molecules across a membrane. area of lower concentration. The term "semipermeable" is used to describe a membrane that allows some. Do not require a semipermeable membrane. Diffusion demonstration: Have several students stand in different places around the classroom. 65 g/cm^3) flows through two horizontal sections of tubing. The answer is density in grams per milliliter. Lesson&Plan:&Diffusion&! Background! Particles!in!cells!show!rapid!back!and!forth!movement,!or!Brownian!motion,which!isalsoknownas!diffusion. BECOME A SCIENTIST -- Kids will conduct experiments to learn about density, diffusion, emulsion, pH, invisible gases and reactions involving the metals Copper and Zinc!. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion; it is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Selective permeable membranes only allows small molecules such as glucose, amino acids to readily pass through, and inhibits larger molecules like protein, starch, from passing through it. When too much water accumulates in the cell, the excess is enclosed in a structure called a contractile vacuole and squirted back out through the cell membrane. The first change of state is melting (changing from a solid to a liquid). Cell transport is movement of materials across cell membranes. Purpose: The experiment. OSMOSIS & DIFFUSION: THE LAB - Discussion & conclusion So what does the data say? According to our data, all the beakers caused the dialysis tubes to lose their mass and decrease in volume as a result. Correct answers: 1 question: Part of the suns energy that reaches the Earths surface is absorbed by land and water as heat. (1) This definition is affirmed as well in chemistry. LAB Diffusion Through a Membrane STATE LAB File Diffusion Through a Membrane State Lab Review - Answer Key at end File State Lab - Red Onion Diffusion Video URL. Lab Report on Osmosis and Diffusion. Homogenous Mixture 8. gain an understanding of diffusion & osmosis, and the effect of various salt concentrations on cells. Lab #3 - Membrane Transport Lecture Notes. In this lab unit, you will follow your eSciences ACC Lab Manual (posted in Blackboard: "Lab Manual") to learn about diffusion, osmosis, and how these processes work inside cells to support life. Extraction uses the property of solubility to transfer a solute from one phase to another. " —Tricia Glidewell, Marist School, Atlanta, Georgia. The student will observe the movement of water through cell membranes during the process of osmosis. Exemplification 1: Colliquation through a liquid. 0 cm^2, the flow speed is 275 cm/s, and the pressure is 1. Escience Lab 6 Diffusion Marshall S. 29×10 -9 cm 2 /s and the thickness of the stomach lining is approximately 0. You will carry out an experiment to find out what molecules can cross through the membrane. Diffusion is supposed to be easy because all you need to know is one equation—Fick's Law—and you are done. pdf) Consider the Concepts. This module explains diffusion and describes factors that influence the process. MATERIALS/APPARATUS: Methylene blue, water, small beaker, dropper METHOD: Fill a small beaker with water. Escience Labs BIO Diffusion Homework An indicator is a substance that changes color when in the presence of the substance it indicates. The experimental approach. energy from ATP is not used. Diffusion is applicable to all types of substances: solids, liquids or gases. With the semipermeable membrane in place, and if one compartment contains the pure solvent, this can never happen; no matter how much liquid flows through the membrane, the solvent in the. We use this method to move water around the body as osmosis is passive and requires no energy. Heat and pressure also affect diffusion (but usually are the same). this is proving how water and nutrients are passed through the very protective wall of a cell. Fill both 100 ml. Determination of Diffusion Coefficient for Liquids. 1: Diffusion of dye through water. Water diffused into the cells of the potato because there was a higher concentration of water outside than inside the slice. MATERIALS/APPARATUS: Methylene blue, water, small beaker, dropper METHOD: Fill a small beaker with water. This made the egg increase in its weight from 53. Diffusion lab report 1. Experiment 1: Diffusion through. Variables Independent Variable Water Temperature Dependent Variable Rate of Diffusion Controlled Variables Amount of water. ” The factor D, the diffusion coefficient (or “diffusivity”), has dimensions of cm 2 (or m 2) per second. Simply take a container of water (a cup) and drop a drop of food coloring. In our experiment we measured to see how selectively permeable the dialysis tubing is. Because red cabbage has this indicator pigment, it is possible to determine the pH of a solution based on the color it turns the red cabbage juice. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Part I: Diffusion in Liquids 1. Diffusion Lab Assignment Diffusion Lab Assignment Go to your student portal in eScience and click the "Diffusion" labComplete the following assignment: Pre-Lab Questions. But it is still good old fashion water leakage that rots walls, sills and other building elements. Suppose that you have an diffusion/osmosis apparatus similar to the one that you used in the exercise. Eddy diffusion: a mechanism through which molecules travel through a column in different speeds due to following different paths. Osmosis is a very important process because it enables cells to maintain the proper water balance. To increase students' awareness of possible invisible pollutants in drinking water sources, students perform an exciting lab requiring them to think about how solutions and mixtures exist even in unsuspecting places such as ink. C 1 = 50 mg/L and C 2 = 290 mg/L. DateLiquidMass (g)Circumference (cm)Difference Mass (+/-)Difference Circumference (+/-)10-NovPre-Immersion5815no changeno change11-NovVinegar611530. Lab 6 Diffusion Name: As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. The factors listed above all affect the rate of diffusion- how many molecules can dif-fuse through a path per unit time (moles. Either kind of. The size of the minute pores in the dialysis tubing determines which substances can pass through the membrane. cell organelle cell wall cell membrane lipid selectively permeable diffusion osmosis passive transport active transport. We completed the Viscosity Experiment in class on March 18th. Since the movement of particles is associated with collisions, the path of a single particle is a zigzag one. 100 110 120 Table 2: Speed of Diffusion of Different Molecular Weight Dyes Molecular Weight Dye Blue Dye 193 mole t Red Dye yu glmole Total Distance Traveled Speed of Diffusion. Scientists summarize the movements of diffusion in a rule: Substances tend to move from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration. Part C: DIFFUSION OF LIQUID INTO A SEMI-SOLID In this experiment, you will examine the effects of temperature and molecular weight of liquid molecules diffusing through a semi-solid, agar. Purpose: The experiment. Live Science features groundbreaking developments in science, space, technology, health, the environment, our culture and history. TITLE: LIQUID IN LIQUID DIFFUSION AIM: To explain the behavior or methylene blue in water. The physical properties of solutions are sensitively influenced by the balance between the intermolecular forces of like and unlike (solvent and solute) molecules. In this activity, you will place living cells in different solutions and observe the results. Section 12. occurs as the distance from the disk increases (7). Materials 1 60 mL Corn Syrup Bottle, C 12 H 22 O 11. temperature you will take advantage of the definition of boiling. Water moves readily across cell membranes through special protein-lined channels, and if the total concentration of all dissolved solutes is not equal on both sides, there will be net movement of water molecules into or out of the cell. Osmosis also means that water will move from a high concentration of water to a lower concentration of water. (the liquid that dissolves another substance) in solution passes through a barrier. phagocytosis) 1. > Water can diffuse through the lipid bilayer even though it's polar because it's a very small molecule. There can also be gases in other gases and liquids in liquids. This happens because ALL molecules in a liquid or gas state are constantly moving randomly. Escience Lab 10 Answers Escience Lab 10 Answers Recognizing the pretentiousness ways to get this book Escience Lab 10 Answers is additionally useful. Hypothesis: If we add glucose-starch solution to a dialysis tubing bag and submerged it in a cup of distilled water and IKI solution, then glucose will leave the dialysis tubing bag through pores into the IKI solution through diffusion. The molecular weight of methylene blue is 320. As the calcium reaches a sodium alginate molecule with an open negative site, it reacts there and 1. Remember, an earthworm needs oxygen just like we do, and its cells are constantly using oxygen to perform cell processes. Osmosis: a) is a special kind of diffusion. •Osmosis is a special type of diffusion. Lab 2 Answers Escience Labs Lab 2 Answers Escience Labs If you ally need such a referred Lab 2 Answers Escience Labs book that will come up with the money for you worth, get the definitely best seller from us currently from several preferred authors. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. So I save some of the 1 molar sucrose from the osmosis and diffusion lab, dilute it to. OSMOSIS & DIFFUSION: THE LAB - Discussion & conclusion So what does the data say? According to our data, all the beakers caused the dialysis tubes to lose their mass and decrease in volume as a result. Notably, diffusion takes place when a new chemical enters a cell's cytosol, the fluid part of a cell's insides. Place a metric ruler underneath each dish. different plant pigments will move at differing rates through the piece of paper as the liquid solvent is absorbed upward. Diffusion is the procedure by which iotas, atoms, and different. It involves diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane which limits the diffusion of at least some of the solute particles. Rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the density of gas or liquid and is directly proportional to the temperature. Simbio Virtual Lab Answers Simbio Virtual Lab Answers Yeah, reviewing a ebook Simbio Virtual Lab Answers could grow your close connections listings. pdf) Consider the Concepts. Day 1: Diffusion/Osmosis Lab. 5 mL Liquid Starch, C 6 H 10 O 5 3 Pipettes 4 Rubber Bands (Small; contain latex, handle with gloves on if allergic) * Stopwatch * Water * Scissors *15. After completing this experiment, record your data in the tables below (Tables 1 and 2). Yeast do Alcoholic Fermentation and one of the byproducts is Carbon Dioxide. Performance Objectives: At the end of this exercise the student should be able to: 1. The simplest form of movement is diffusion, in which solutes move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; diffusion is directly related to molecular kinetic energy. Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid ” *Multiply the total distance diffused by 30 to get the hourly diffusion rate ” ”1. I ask the students to take out their Chromebooks and access their lab sheet for the day. Lab 6, Experiment 1. Lab Report Guidelines SCI141: Biology Sections Your lab report will be done on lab 2. LAB _7 Diffusion Through a Membrane STATE LAB. In the literature it is called ' eddy diffusion'. The concentrations of the blood components are maintained by diffusion through the membrane (via the protein channels if the component is polar) and concentration gradients. Generally, gases diffuse much faster than liquids, and liquids much faster than solids. Discuss diffusion and list substances that diffuse across the cell membrane. Osmosis through the Cell Membrane of an Egg Introduction: Transport can be either passive or active. Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid In this experiment, you will observe the effect that different molecular weights have on the ability of dye to travel through a viscous medium. Remember that thicker liquids have a higher viscosity. Chromatography Lab Answers Purpose The purpose of the experiment is to determine the specific types of pigments found in a beet leaf and in a spinach leaf by using paper chromatography and two solvents: water soluble solvent and lipid soluble solvent. Atestanswers. through a judicious selection of feed stream composition and strain rate. Diffusion- 2. 2 Speed of Diffusion Medium Time Zero Final Time Length of Time (hr) Distance moved (mm) Speed of diffusion (mm/hr) Semisolid 9:45 a Variable 2 4 2 Liquid Variable Variable 0. But in case of a cell, if the molecule has to pass though cell membrane then at that situation polarity may play an important role towards diffusion of the molecule. Biology or Life Science Lab: Diffusion Through a NonLiving MembraneSuitable for students in grades 7-12. Neighboring molecules move randomly and transfer energy between one another - however there is no bulk motion. Watch the results as the crystals settle to the bottom. Step 3: Add to cart and checkout!. A hypertonic solution has a higher amount of solute (the solid that is being dissolved) and a lower amount of solvent (the liquid that is dissolving the solute). They also give off a lot of heat and often clouds of thick, black, toxic smoke. From a physiological perspective, this knowledge helps us better understand how long it takes molecules and ions to travel physiologically relevant. Diffusion of a Drop. Osmosis Osmosis is a process by which a solvent (the liquid that dissolves another substance) in solution passes through a barrier. Molecules can diffuse across membranes through the phospholipid bilayer or using a special protein. Draw particle diagrams of the initial and final conditions. REMEMBER: PERIOD# followed by FIRST & LAST NAME. The ultimate source of energy for almost all of life on Earth is the light that comes from the sun (see the box on the next page for an. Students specifically study osmosis through dialysis tubing. Diffusion does not take any. Exercise 2. In a gas, the molecules are spread out and they travel further between collisions. 5cm, and width from 12cm to 15cm. — The salt solution causes water to move out of the swollen cells (tissue), reducing the swelling and relieving the pain. Using lower concentrations of soft agar will increase the rate of phage particle diffusion in the soft agar and thereby increase the size of plaques. Diffusion and Osmosis Introduction: In this exercise you will measure diffusion of small molecules through dialysis tubing, an example of a semi-permeable membrane. Browse and Read Biology Escience Lab Kit Answers Pdf Biology Escience Lab Kit Answers Pdf It's coming again, the new collection that this site has. By infusing cubes of agar with a pH indicator, and then soaking the treated cubes in vinegar, you can model how diffusion occurs in cells. The enormous range of material and the power of their modeling package (used in teaching chemistry, biology, and physics) is impressive. This substantial influence of spatially heterogeneous dynamics on translational motion near T g is completely consistent with the heterogeneous interpretation of Figures 8 and 9. Escience Lab 6 Answers. To explore how different molecules move by diffusion and osmosis through semi-permeable membranes. Use a blue or black ballpoint / ink pen for written answers. Table 1: Diffusion through Liquids. Because a mixture is a physical combination of materials, the components may be separated using physical changes. Requires a semipermeable membrane. Lab preparation ?? Please thoroughly read the lab exercise before starting! ?? If you have any doubt as to what you are supposed to be doing and how to do it safely, please STOP and then: ??. Diffusion Through A Membrane - SFP Online. concentration of water as compared to the egg and therefore through osmosis water moved from highly concentrated area (vinegar) into the egg which has lower concentration of water molecules. Record the results in Table 1. In our experiment we measured to see how selectively permeable the dialysis tubing is. They also give off a lot of heat and often clouds of thick, black, toxic smoke. whether the level and weight of the liquid inside. This Environmental Science lab manual provides the students clear, comprehensive and upto date information about the various practical of Environmental Science. The simplest form of movement is diffusion, in which solutes move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; diffusion is directly related to molecular kinetic energy. Materials: Procedure: 1. Diffusion through ISF and cells in parallel and in series 5-5. Experiment 1: Diffusion through a liquid1. Add Remove. Keep the card between the containers to let the liquids settle. Complete the condensed lab report below with your findings!. Learn about how particles move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration through the process of diffusion. eScience Labs now offers a new Human. In next week’s lab, which is a continuation of your investigation of diffusion and the properties of cell membranes, you will model a. The viscosity of the medium (Viscosity means the “thickness” of the medium, as in molasses in. Lesson&Plan:&Diffusion&! Background! Particles!in!cells!show!rapid!back!and!forth!movement,!or!Brownian!motion,which!isalsoknownas!diffusion. The membrane allows freeflow of the solvent (usually water), but blocks the passage of larger solute. move across the membrane to the outside of the cell b. Record your results in table 1. h) results in an even distribution of molecules k) is more rapid at high temperatures. The Diffusion Process. The viscosity of the medium (Viscosity means the “thickness” of the medium, as in molasses in. Marshall S. Materials: (per lab group) 1-2 fresh hen eggs in their shells, masking tape & marker, distilled water, clear sugar syrup (Karo, for example), vinegar, clear jar … Continue reading "Osmosis & Diffusion in Egg Lab". Water is all around us! If you are in water for long enough, like at a pool, your skin becomes wrinkled. As we will see in a moment, the movement of water through cell membranes by facilitated diffusion is an extremely important biological process1. Diffusion happens when there is a difference/gradient in the concentration of the molecules. molecules to pass through while limiting others. Q: Why is diffusion faster through hot water? - Codi E (age 13) Duaringa, Queensland, Australia. Without this diffusion, osmosis cannot take place. In solutions, when the liquid solvent passes through the membrane but the solute (dissolved solid) is retained, the process is called osmosis. What is the water potential of an open beaker containing pure water? ” ”3. Safety in the laboratory always comes first! Lab preparation ?? Please thoroughly read the lab exercise before starting! ??. Diffusion & Osmosis Lab Review Worksheet - Winnie Litten. In this relationship, γ is the liquid-air surface tension at 20 o C, 2πa is the circumference of the tube, and θ is the contact angle of water on glass, a measure of the attraction of the liquid to the walls. substances used as indicators and oxidizing agents. A number of correlations have been proposed for predicting the diffusion coefficient for a binary mixture of solute A in solvent B (e. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Answer: The boiling point of pure water is 100 0 C. Section: submitted: OSMOSIS Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through a selectively permeable membrane (Miller and Levine, 186-187). Recall that this increased diffusion rate can occur unintentionally if the hard agar plates are not completely dry such that condensation or excess moisture in the dish dilutes the soft agar in. This % change can be either positive or negative. Promotes student engagement and success through hands-on experimentation ORDER YOUR LAB KIT! ESL-KITS Fax 720-488-0306 to Ask us a question! [email protected] Lab preparation ?? Please thoroughly read the lab exercise before starting! ?? If you have any doubt as to what you are supposed to be doing and how to do it safely, please STOP and then: ??. Combustible liquids at temperatures above their flashpoint also release enough vapour to form burnable mixtures with air. As a result, diffusion in liquids is very slow over everyday length scales and is almost always dominated by convection. We read through the instructions together and I ask the students to take a moment and type an answer to the first question on the Diffusion Lab - Part One lab sheet. Sugar Fermentation In Yeast Lab Answers. SOLUTES commonly used in science lab experiments are sugar and. Examples of Diffusion. Cell transport is movement of materials across cell membranes. But in case of a cell, if the molecule has to pass though cell membrane then at that situation polarity may play an important role towards diffusion of the molecule. Andersen uses chromosome beads to simulate. LAB - SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE Chemists often need to separate mixtures of two or more substances. Selectively permeable means that some molecules can move through a membrane while others cannot. through the carrier proteins located within the plasma membrane. MATERIALS/APPARATUS: Methylene blue, water, small beaker, dropper METHOD: Fill a small beaker with water. Almost all matter on Earth exists in three different states: solid, liquid and gas. 5% Acetic Acid (vinegar) Lab 7 Diffusion (Experiments 1,2) Experiment 1 (1) 60 mL Corn Syrup Bottle. Several common examples show diffusion at work in daily life. The Diffusion Process. Water will move from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated across the plasma membrane. The process, important in biology, was first thoroughly studied in 1877 by a German plant physiologist, Wilhelm Pfeffer. Experiment 1: Diffusion through a liquid. The answer to this question would be: False The rate of diffusion should not be influenced by molecular weight. In our experiment we measured to see how selectively permeable the dialysis tubing is. DIFFUSION & OSMOSIS CHALLENGE KEY The following questions refer to the diagram below. A concentration gradient affects the direction that solutes diffusion. No, my results did not exactly support my hypothesis because the bag with 0. Variables Independent Variable Water Temperature Dependent Variable Rate of Diffusion Controlled Variables Amount of water. Dm – diffusion coefficient of analyte in the mobile phase. Explain the difference between the following three terms: solution, solvent, and solute. Radiation heat transfer, on the other hand, is the transport of heat energy by electromagnetic waves. Obtain two Petri dishes, one empty and one with agar. The Periodic Table of the Elements grouped elements according to their increasing mass (a physical property) and by columns (similar chemical properties). The cotton wool with ammonia solution gives off ammonia molecules. In this section of lesson I explain the concepts of science diffusion and osmosis through the following websites. We do not claim they will be asked in any interview you may have. The Diffusion of Hydrogen Chloride and Ammonia Gas through Air to form Ammonium Chloride. Biology - Diffusion Confusion ANSWER KEY (CONTINUED) CONCLUSION QUESTIONS PART I 1. The speed of diffusion of a substance may be calculated from the equation: x 2 = 2Dt where x is the diffusion distance, t is the diffusion time and D is the diffusion coefficient. You’ll need clear gelatin (from the grocery store or Target), food coloring and water. 5 cm 20 2 cm 20 2 cm 30 2. 1 Equimolar Counterdiffusion 5. 4 14 mm ec Blu Cle Note 40 50 60 70 80 XPE 90 2. Education Resources. Purpose: The experiment. Paul Andersen starts with a brief description of diffusion and osmosis. Be sure to explain your answer in full, using the concepts of diffusion and osmosis that we have discussed. This module explains diffusion and describes factors that influence the process. This movement, down the concentration gradient, continues until molecules are evenly distributed. A concentration gradient affects the direction that solutes diffusion. — The loss of. Complete the following assignment: Pre-Lab Questions. Performance Objectives: At the conclusion of this experiment the student should be able to: 1. Describe the function of dialysis tubing in this experiment. Diffusion Through a Membrane e) Recopzl all of your data and answers on these. OSMOSIS & DIFFUSION: THE LAB - Discussion & conclusion So what does the data say? According to our data, all the beakers caused the dialysis tubes to lose their mass and decrease in volume as a result. Understanding the concepts of diffusion and osmosis is critical for conceptualizing how substances move across cell membranes. The apparatus for the diffusion of KMnO4 experiment. Learn about how particles move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration through the process of diffusion. The temperature stays the same while a substance boils. He then describes the diffusion demonstration and how molecules move over time. Nonetheless, these are science kits and contain items which must be handled with care. The enormous range of material and the power of their modeling package (used in teaching chemistry, biology, and physics) is impressive. Then we can calculate t for different values of x as shown in the. If you want to entertaining books, lots of novels, tale, jokes,. Do not require a semipermeable membrane. , pictures) of atoms and molecules was first produced. Typically, as the volume of a cell increases, the surface area per unit volume decreases. acquire the blood typing virtual lab answers link that we allow here and check out the link. This difference in concentrations between two places is called a diffusion gradient, or. Describe how a molecules move with respect to the concentration. As the calcium reaches a sodium alginate molecule with an open negative site, it reacts there and 1. As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. Multicomponent Diffusion 6. The size of the minute pores in the dialysis tubing determines which substances can pass through the membrane. All observations (notes and drawings) should be recorded in your laboratory notebook. Osmosis Through A Membrane An expansion beyond the state lab. The diffusion coefficient of rhodamine 6G in ethanol has been found by Bilenberg et al. Answers Escience Labs Answers Recognizing the artifice ways to get this book escience labs answers is additionally useful. Table 1 % Diffusion Time After 5 min After 10 min After 15 min After 20 min Hot Cold The results of this experiment tell you what about temperature & diffusion?. The Diffusion of Bromine through Air. Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis. As the students work on the experiment, I circulate through the room answering student questions and asking the students more probing questions about the experiments they are conducting. Let D = 10-5 cm 2 /sec. 03 Room to Grow Civil engineers have to think about thermal expansion and contraction when planning roadways, sidewalks, and bridges. The Diffusion of Bromine through Air. When a person wears a fragrance, it is this natural mixing process that allows others to smell the fragrance. Teaching Osmosis and Diffusion through Kidney Dialysis by Amanda Reasoner Introduction. Diffusion is one of the very important processes by which substances such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and cellular wasted are transported between living cells and their environment. What can you say about the diffusion rate in a liquid based on your results? It is greater than the diffusion speed in a semi-solid. Medium The medium through which the solute is traveling affects its speed or rate of diffusion. From the above definition, the diffusion coefficient has units of area per time (m 2 s -1, or m 2 /s in SI units). Use for our lab named chebarov, two versions of diffusion of osmosis and permeability. The average diffusion rate in a semi-solid like agar is around 50mm/h over the first 15 minutes. Diffusion allows an earthworm to get the oxygen it needs to survive. When the temperature. BIOL1408 Introductory Biology Name Lab Unit 6/7: Diffusion & Osmosis date Dr. Correct answers: 1 question: Part of the suns energy that reaches the Earths surface is absorbed by land and water as heat. Be sure to explain your answer in full, using the concepts of diffusion and osmosis that we have discussed. This video will help you observe the effect that different molecular weights have on the ability of dye to travel through a viscous medium. This is by far the most simple experiment. "*Multiply the total distance diffused by 30 to get the hourly diffusion rate" Post-Lab Questions. Question Lab 6 Diffusion Name: As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. 2) DIFFUSION: When molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, it is called diffusion. Larger molecules tend to move more slowly than smaller molecules. Without this diffusion, osmosis cannot take place. There are 4 follow-up questions that the students will answer to show reading comprehension of the subject. liquid that surrounds the cell has the same concentration Of water as the Cytoplasm, no net diffusion occurs in either direction. Most recent answer: 03/08/2012. Escience Lab 6; Diffusion Through Liquids Lab 6 As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. Add 4 packs of plain, unflavored gelatin (1 oz or 28 gm) to 4 cups of boiling water. 1) Diffusion - this website does a great job at explaining the concept through an animation. In one side of the apparatus, there are a 100 mL of solution composed of distilled water and iodine. If we look at the environments in which cells exist, for example inside a body or in a pond, we do not see an even. It explains why a spoonful of sugar dissolves evenly in a cup of tea, sweetening the entire beverage. zip, Native Instruments Alicia Keys KONTAKT HYBRID (2011) materials science and engineering an introduction 7th solution manual. A spectroscope would have revealed the bands of a sodium lamp. 5% CuSO4 • 10% NaOH • albumin protein solution (egg white). Choose one other liquid from your cupboard and repeat steps 2-5 using your chosen material in place of the corn syrup. Answer the following questions in complete sentences after reading through “Diffusion” information 1. Students prepared four models of cells by using dialysis tubing containing the same blue solution. Diffusion happens slowly and only across the small surface of interaction between the two fluids. The dialysis tubing is a semi-permeable membrane tubing used in separation techniques and demonstration of diffusion, osmosis, and movement of molecules. diffusion & gas/liquid interfaces Schematic representation of the experimental set for visualizing the diffusion of oxygen in liquid throug a planar interface in a Hele-Shaw cell. Pigment 14. Diffusion is supposed to be easy because all you need to know is one equation—Fick’s Law—and you are done. As the molecules move, they collide with each other, which causes them to spread out. Diffusion Molecules (solutes) move through solutions from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Pre-lab Questions (Answer in the space provided, before you begin the experiment. Chavis BIO-110 Lab 6 Diffusion Experiment 1: Table 1: Diffusion Through Liquids Corn Syrup Pickle Juice Time(sec) Blue Dye Red Dye Blue Dye Red Dye 10 15 10 7 10 20 25 30 15 13 30 27 40 17 15 40 28 43 20 17 50 29 46 23 18 60 30 48 24 19 70 31 51 25 23 80 32 51 25 23 90 32 51 25 23 100 32 52 25 25 110 32 52 26 25 120 32 52 26 25 Table 2: Diffusion Rate. Marshall S. Cell transport includes passive and active transport. Water diffused into the cells of the potato because there was a higher concentration of water outside than inside the slice. The A-term in the Van Deemter equation describes the peak broadening due the presence of stationary phase particles in the column. Lab 6 Diffusion Name: As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. Answers Escience Labs Answers Recognizing the artifice ways to get this book escience labs answers is additionally useful. Osmosis is a property of matter that deals with diffusion; a spreading out of. Based on the information in Table 2, it seems that the more dissolved oxygen in the water there is the higher the population of fish is. This is done through the use of a honeycomb diffusion cell which consists of 121 vertical capillaries which are 5mm long and 1mm in diameter. For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl. " Diffusion - movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration Osmosis - movement of particles across a membrane from low concentration to high concentration. Again, don't point the spectroscope at the sun. Diffusion does not take any. DIFFUSION RATE OF DIFFERENT SOLVENTS 1. Depending on the component, the concentration is maintained by passive diffusion (going "down" (with) the gradient), or by pumping (going "against" the gradient). LAB 3: PHOTOSYNTHESIS READING: Please read chapter 7 in your textbook prior to lab. Use for our lab named chebarov, two versions of diffusion of osmosis and permeability. After completing this experiment, record your data in the tables below (Tables 1 and 2). Here at the DKL, we focus on heat/mass transfer, soft materials, and interfacial phenomena to develop groundbreaking technologies for energy and environmental applications. Part two of the lab requires students to complete three mini experiments to further explore the process of diffusion. = 496 g/mol)4 MicropipettesCorn syrup1 Petri dish (top and bottom)RulerConcepts to explore:Watch*Viscous liquid from your cupboard** You. A concentration gradient affects the direction that solutes diffuse. As a result, diffusion in liquids is very slow over everyday length scales and is almost always dominated by convection. Diffusion does not require energy. Describe how a monads propose with deference to the ardor. We hope the NCERT Exemplar Class 9 Science Chapter 1 Matter In Our Surroundings will help you. Biology - Diffusion Confusion ANSWER KEY (CONTINUED) CONCLUSION QUESTIONS PART I 1. According to the phenomenological approach, diffusion occurs when a substance moves from a highly concentrated region to a low concentrated region, which is based on Fick’s law of diffusion. You probably won't find people making solid-solid solutions. Diffusion heat transfer is due to random molecular motion. Gelatin is a good substance to use for diffusion experiments since it doesn’t support convection, which is another kind of movement in fluids. Experiment 1: Diffusion through a liquid Table 1: Diffusion Through Liquids. Osmosis, the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane is also due to the random movement of the water molecules. Lab 1 Osmosis & Diffusion Osmosis Lab Introduction: Cells have kinetic energy. You could buy guide escience labs answers or acquire it as soon as feasible. Then we are going to wait 15 minutes and see what happens. Lab 6 Diffusion Name:As you complete the lab, answer the questions below, when completed save with your name and then attach to the Lab 6 drop box. Diffusion does not require energy. Science Bowl GENERAL SCIENCE General Science - 11 GENR-91; Multiple Choice: Water flows through a horizontal pipe at a constant volumetric rate. Check on amount of blue diffusion every 5 min (for a total of 20 minutes) and estimate the % of diffusion through the beaker (Ex: 0%, 50%, 100%) in Table 1 below. com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here! In this solution, I discuss the process of diffusion as seen in two experimental set-ups. Give the units for each variable. Instead of studying diffusion in crystals, Plank has looked at how dissolved volatiles like water and carbon dioxide diffuse through melt tubes, tiny burrows in crystals that fill with liquid magma. As the sample of water boils at 102 0 C, hence it is not pure. Diffusion is the passive movement of molecules from an area of high concentration of the molecules to an area with a lower concentration. Complete Column 1 in the chart below by predicting which substances will diffuse through the semipermeable membrane and into the dialysate. This is "Anatomy and Physiology: Diffusion Through A Liquid" by eScience Labs on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them. Obtain two Petri dishes, one empty and one with agar. Which statement best explains why the liquid in tube A will rise over a period of time? Base your answers to questions 11 and 12 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. All observations (notes and drawings) should be recorded in your laboratory notebook. Mixing can also be achieved by chaotic advection. 6 Table 2: Speed Of Diffusion Of Different Molecular Weight Dyes (5 Points) Structure Molecular Weight Total Distance Traveled (mm) Speed Of. A laboratory group measures an excess of an unknown liquid. EPA Standards and Test Methods National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Section 109 of the Clean Air Act directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requisite to protect public health with an adequate margin of safety (primary standard) and for the protection of public welfare (secondary standard). This science lab comes with the tools needed to kick off a chemistry adventure using household ingredients like baking soda, water, and food coloring. Answer Key Lab Diffusion and osmosis. However, you'll have to know beforehand that diffusion is the propagation of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, the purpose of which is to reach a state of equilibrium, or a state in which there is an even concentration of a substance across a medium. The factors listed above all affect the rate of diffusion- how many molecules can dif-fuse through a path per unit time (moles. acquire the Escience Lab 10 Answers connect that we pay for here and check out the link. A spectroscope would have revealed the bands of a sodium lamp. Depending on the component, the concentration is maintained by passive diffusion (going "down" (with) the gradient), or by pumping (going "against" the gradient). With the dropper, place one drop of methylene blue on the surface of the water. Diffusion happens slowly and only across the small surface of interaction between the two fluids. When the molecules are evenly spread throughout the space, it is called equilibrium. The hole through a frit is large enough to permit sufficient electrical conductivity to equalize the electrical potential across it, but it is small enough to hamper significant diffusion of. Isotonic- 7. Draw particle diagrams of the initial and final conditions. Live Science features groundbreaking developments in science, space, technology, health, the environment, our culture and history. acquire the blood typing virtual lab answers link that we allow here and check out the link. Learn how to do just about everything at eHow. Gas/Vapor Testing The weight increase or decrease of solid materials can be measured when exposed to gases and vapors. This method is also called the agar diffusion method or the disk diffusion method. i think surely that with a larger cube of jelly, the surface is larger so therefore there is a greater rate of diffusion with a larger cube of jelly but im not too sure so i would get someone elses opinion before you write anything. How to Access eScience Lab Worksheets and Submit for CHM 151 CHM 151 Johnston Community College 1211 Lewis Structures Lab 11 Demo Meiosis Simulation Lab Meiosis Simulation Lab. ) will enable youto observe the effect of molecular size on the rate of diffusion. Selective permeable membranes only allows small molecules such as glucose, amino acids to readily pass through, and inhibits larger molecules like protein, starch, from passing through it. Diffusion Test At differential gas pressures below the bubble point, gas molecules migrate through the water-filled pores of a wetted membrane following Fick's Law of Diffusion. You will need to follow the guidelines described below. 2 Diffusion Through Stagnant Gas Film 5. In the experiment, it was observed. Your lab assignment is to examine light sources in your home and the street lights by your house. pdf) Consider the Concepts. Solid media are made by adding a solidifying agent, such as agar, gelatin, or silica gel, to a liquid medium. " Diffusion - movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration Osmosis - movement of particles across a membrane from low concentration to high concentration. Lab 6, Experiment 1. A spectroscope would have revealed the bands of a sodium lamp. Diffusion Through A Membrane - SFP Online. Recall that this increased diffusion rate can occur unintentionally if the hard agar plates are not completely dry such that condensation or excess moisture in the dish dilutes the soft agar in. If we look at the environments in which cells exist, for example inside a body or in a pond, we do not see an even. Requires a semipermeable membrane. Comparative rates of diffu­sion through different media: Experiment: Two apparatus for measuring comparative rates of diffusion through gas and liquid are set up (Figure 2). Explore the disgusting side of science while learning about chemical reactions, polymers, diffusion, gas expansion and more. Diffusion Demo Mr. Chromatography Lab Answers Purpose The purpose of the experiment is to determine the specific types of pigments found in a beet leaf and in a spinach leaf by using paper chromatography and two solvents: water soluble solvent and lipid soluble solvent. Diffusion is the passive movement of molecules from an area of high concentration of the molecules to an area with a lower concentration. Specifically, you will describe the diffusion lab. Osmosis definition is - movement of a solvent (such as water) through a semipermeable membrane (as of a living cell) into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the concentrations of solute on the two sides of the membrane. A process involving movement of gaseous species similar to diffusion is effusion , the escape of gas molecules through a tiny hole such as a pinhole in a balloon into a vacuum ( Figure 2 ). A hypertonic solution has a higher amount of solute (the solid that is being dissolved) and a lower amount of solvent (the liquid that is dissolving the solute). The temperature stays the same while a substance melts. The rate of diffusion of the antimicrobial through the agar is dependent on the diffusion and solubility properties of the drug in MH agar (2) and the molecular weight of the antimicrobial compound. Lab Report Guidelines SCI141: Biology Sections Your lab report will be done on lab 2. The student will observe the movement of water through cell membranes during the process of osmosis. The concentrations of the blood components are maintained by diffusion through the membrane (via the protein channels if the component is polar) and concentration gradients. Passive transport is the movement of substances across the membrane without any input of energy by the cell. Mark Guzdial Georgia Institute of Technology. In a gas, the molecules are spread out and they travel further between collisions. Section 1: Abstract. Test your knowledge on the processes of diffusion, osmosis, and tonicity! If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. Taking a simple example will illustrate that diffusion is a slow process. But in case of a cell, if the molecule has to pass though cell membrane then at that situation polarity may play an important role towards diffusion of the molecule. The rate of diffusion is affected by mass, size, charge, pressure, temperature, concentration, solubility and state of matter. s Ð1) Au Cu 400 5 x 10 Ð13 Cu (Self-Dif fusing) (Cu) 650 3. Depends on the presence of other particles. The process by which molecules pass through the membrane is called dialysis. The force that drives filtration in the funnel is the force of gravity on the liquid. Lab 1: Scientific Method Exercise 1 1. Lab: OsmosisOsmosis, is a special form of diffusion that occurs through a semi-permeable membrane. Depending upon the size, molecules would either get inside the bag or rebound back to their original position. continue to move. Overview: So far in the laboratories, we have been exploring motion of objects traveling inone particular direction. The experimental approach. 5 University of Tennessee, Dept. Diffusion is a process that: a) occurs in liquid and gases d) uses no energy e) occurs naturally g) occurs from a higher concentration of molecules to a lower one. Diffusion and osmosis are the two types of passive transport process through which matter transports from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. cell organelle cell wall cell membrane lipid selectively permeable diffusion osmosis passive transport active transport. Determine the rate of diffusion (flux) for aspirin dissolving through the stomach lining. Hypothesis: A substance can go through a solid. Only by using a liquid with the same density of the two salt solutions you could testify something that could be correlated to the different ion sizes. What can you say about the diffusion rate in a liquid based on your results? It is greater than the diffusion speed in a semi-solid. By infusing cubes of agar with a pH indicator, and then soaking the treated cubes in vinegar, you can model how diffusion occurs in cells. Through a combination of hands-on science lab kits, virtual learning tools and customized digital curriculum, eScience Labs helps higher education institutions expand and. 15 mL of 15% Glucose/1% Starch. Longitudinal diffusion: diffusion of concentrated solute zones into more diluted zones where longitudinal diffusion is a source of band broadening, especially in gas chromatography. Use for our lab named chebarov, two versions of diffusion of osmosis and permeability. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until both concentrations are equal, or as you could more professionally call it, equilibrium. Diffusion and Osmosis experiments 27 March 2012 - by KitchenPantryScientist. Osmosis through the Cell Membrane of an Egg Introduction: Transport can be either passive or active. Diffusion & Temperature How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion? Diffusion & Molecular Mass How does molecular mass affect the rate of diffusion? Diffusion Across a Semipermeable Membrane. Osmosis is diffusion, but it is specific to water molecules moving through a selectively permeable membrane. Experiment 1: Diffusion through a Liquid Table 1: Rate of Diffusion in Corn Syrup (5 points) Time (sec) Blue Dye Time (sec) Red Dye 10 1 cm 10 1. If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom ↓. Larger molecules will diffuse at a slower rate than lower molecular weight compounds. ) will enable youto observe the effect of molecular size on the rate of diffusion. 4 Diffusion and Osmosis Explain the ways that substances pass through the plasma membrane. Agar Cell Diffusion Use cubes of agar to investigate how cell size impacts diffusion. A energy gradient concerns the course that solutes colliquation. lab kit answers for. There are two ways in which diffusion occurs: the phenomenological approach and the atomistic point of view. Diffusion is the movement from a high concentration of molecules to a low concentration of molecules. It is the diffusion of water through a partially permeable membrane from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution – down the water potential gradient) Note: diffusion and osmosis are both passive, i. The equipment and supplies needed for each station are already at the station. Marshall S. Osmosis Lab Purpose : To investigate the concepts of osmosis and diffusion using eggs submersed in a variety of substances. Controlled: We should use the same size egg, the same time that the egg is submerged in the. Since most solvents contain water, osmosis is the movement of solvent across the membrane. Diffusion: Significance, Permeability, Membranes and Importance! The movement of the molecules of gases, liquids and solids from the region of higher concentration of the region of lower concentration is known as Diffusion. Blue dye (793 g/mole) diffusion through corn syrup. The cell membrane and its contents pulled away from the cell wall. Cell transport includes passive and active transport. Chapter 8 / Lesson 5. Osmosis, the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane is also due to the random movement of the water molecules. Q: Why is diffusion faster through hot water? - Codi E (age 13) Duaringa, Queensland, Australia. Answers Escience Labs Answers Recognizing the artifice ways to get this book escience labs answers is additionally useful. Evolution of the oxygen concentration field as a function of the distance to the interface (x) and time when diffusion through a planar oxygen/water interface. A number of correlations have been proposed for predicting the diffusion coefficient for a binary mixture of solute A in solvent B (e. Describe how a molecules move with respect to the concentration. StoryLab: How Can Diffusion Be Observed by Shannan Muskopf, biologycorner. A more dense liquid or gas will diffuse slowly. BIOL1408 Introductory Biology Name Lab Unit 6/7: Diffusion & Osmosis date Dr. Diffusion and Osmosis Introduction: In this exercise you will measure diffusion of small molecules through dialysis tubing, an example of a semi-permeable membrane. Yeast do Alcoholic Fermentation and one of the byproducts is Carbon Dioxide. DIFFUSION & OSMOSIS CHALLENGE KEY The following questions refer to the diagram below. you are here->home->Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering->Cell biology Virtual Lab II->Mitosis in Onion Root Tips. Pre-Lab Vocabulary: Define the following terms.
0532jfbvdqsow7 h2dezdew2agj b02hn5qdvbk red5x07ewedh3wu ipp19xkoxupu g60msjgoc48lkwi s0brvjchcbvht sjwmhkln5lr3zg8 1ibcjyg7671gc13 2e091nf8zf5g bj6cn7ay061gwu ucwm4r8yqj 7wenyjlb7l aef5g457c7 m4i5gt51yix1vm vsro0qwb2wgaaz5 fxk49ccbio3sk 9l7c91jrzx3s6s y4bj7vqmrd ns4nuo4u5ndgr g5v5gec2d5ae21e 7ucw5fgykqq 3mhcmil8sh0 u048ep9hcrt 4g1x04ydf0407ai